Referencing and citing


Help with selected referencing styles used at Te Herenga Waka--Victoria University of Wellington.

Introduction to referencing styles

Referencing styles are sets of instructions explaining how you should reference the sources you use.

There are many different styles in use at Te Herenga Waka - Victoria University of Wellington but it is important to follow a single style. Your School will have a policy on which style to use, which you can confirm with your lecturer or by consulting your course outline.

Common styles used within the University are given below. Each style has an official “style manual” although many other helpful resources also exist.


This style, from the American Psychological Association, is widely used across the University. The latest style is APA 7th edition published in 2019. Key changes are outlined in this comparison chart.

Interactive guides:

Reference guides:

Official style guide:


This style, from Chicago University Press, is common in the humanities and social sciences. The most recent version is CMOS 17th edition, published in 2017. It allows for two different systems of referencing. Confirm which system you are supposed to use:

  • Chicago A notes and bibliography system uses footnotes or endnotes
  • Chicago B author-date system uses in-text citations and a reference list (also known as Harvard style).

Official guide:

Chicago A notes and bibliography

Chicago B author-date


Popular in electronics, engineering, computer science, and information technology, this is the referencing style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The most recent version was released in 2020.

Official guide:

Other guides:


This style, from the Modern Languages Association, is commonly used in humanities disciplines. The most recent version is MLA 8th edition, published in 2016.

Official style guide:

Other useful guides:

NZLSG (New Zealand Law Style Guide)

The NZLSG is the officially adopted referencing style of the Faculty of Law and must be used in all writing for the Faculty. It supersedes all other law style guides.

Reference management software recommendations for Law at Victoria University of Wellingotn.