Referencing and citing


Guides and examples for the Modern Languages Association referencing style.

Style guides

This style, from the Modern Languages Association, is commonly used in humanities disciplines. The most recent version is MLA 9th edition.

Official style manual

Tools and tips

Citing AI-generated content

You can find the latest advice for citing and referencing content created by generative artificial intelligence (GenAI) tools in the MLA Style Center.

In summary, from March 2023:

  • Acknowledge all functional uses of GenAI tools, such as editing or translating tasks. You can do this in your text or in a footnote.
  • Provide citations and complete reference details whenever you incorporate into your own work any content that was created by a GenAI tool.
  • GenAI tools should not be considered as authors.
  • Complete reference details should:
    • have no author name
    • use a description of the content generated as the Source Title, for example, use the prompt text
    • use the name of the GenAI tool as the Container Title
    • include the version of the GenAI tool
    • use the producer of the GenAI tool as the Publisher
    • include the date the content was generated
    • include a publicly available link to a saved copy of the generated content, or, if one is not available, include a link to the general website of the GenAI tool.

More information