Open access (OA) or Open Scholarship refers to publishing research and data to provide unrestricted access in commercial and non-commercial sources. Material is shared through Creative Commons licences, often the Attribution CC-BY licence allowing the reuse and distribution of material, and requiring attribution to the original creator. Open access includes journal articles, books, chapters, artwork and images, data and software code. Open data enables the sharing and reuse of research data.
On 14 February 2002, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), a collection of research societies, universities and publishers, launched a worldwide campaign for open access (OA) to scholarly journal literature through self-archiving, open access journals and other strategies.
The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, June 2003 specified how to make OA material available online, with public reuse rights. The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledges in the Sciences and Humanities, October 2003 promoted the Internet to develop a global open research knowledge base.