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This guide explains the measures used for academic papers

Document-level metrics

  • At the heart of bibliometric analysis is the publication of an article, chapter or book and a measurement of the subsequent citations it receives.
  • A citation ‘count’ may be automatically compiled by the hosting database or an indexing service and displayed alongside the document.
  • Article-level metrics can be ‘rolled up’ to analyse the performance of a journal title. The ‘main-players’ for journal-level metrics are Elsevier (a publisher and indexer) and Clarivate Analytics (indexer only).
  • Not all journal titles are indexed and only publications indexed by Elsevier in Scopus form the data set that is analysed for international university rankings.

Scopus document-level metrics

In some bibliometric databases that ‘count’ may be contextualised by percentile or Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI) comparison with similar documents 

For examplethe Scopus database has counted 380 citations for the following article, it is in the 99th percentile and it has a Field-Weighted Citation Impact of 9.73, when compared with similar documents 

Dimensions document-level metrics

At the document level Dimensions uses the Field Citation Ration (FCR) The FCR indicates the relative citation performance of a publication when compared to similarly-aged articles in its subject area. A value of more than 1.0 indicates higher than average citation, when defined by Field of Research (FoR) subject code, and publication year. Dimensions also has a Relative Citation Ratio (RCR) metric for articles published in PubMed. Search for the article and click on the Dimensions Badge for additional information about the article.