Reference List: Digital sources

Usually, electronic sources like web sites and online books are referenced in the same way as print sources. However, instead of publisher details and page numbers, simply provide the URL (the www. address) where the source can be found on the internet.

Because URLs can change, provide the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when it is available. 

NOTE: If a web site address needs to be divided in your Reference List, break it after a slash (/). Do not insert a hyphen unless there is one in the URL.


1.   Web page


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of webpage. Title of website. Retrieved from URL


The Designers Institute of New Zealand (n.d.). Student Council. The Designers Institute. Retrieved from


2.   Web article


Author, A. A. (Year of publication, month/day). Title of webpage. Title of website. Retrieved from URL


Atherton, J. (2016, January 25). Kiwi gaming inventors steam ahead. Stuff. Retrieved from


3.   Online or electronic book

If you download an eBook from a web site, and information on the publisher is not provided, then use the following format:


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Retrieved from URL

If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from", rather than "Retrieved from", and point readers to where they can find it.


Cari, R. (2015). Creative design. Available from