Whenever you use ideas and material that are not your own, you must provide an in-text citation. There are two parts – the author’s surname and the date of publication. This rule never changes, no matter what type of source you are using.
There are two ways to write an in-text citation:
Norman (2013) explains that we often need a manual or personal instruction to use a complex device.
We often need a manual or personal instruction to use a complex device (Norman, 2013).
If you are using a direct quote i.e. the exact words of the author, then you also need to include a page number. For example:
The next materials revolution is unlikely to lead to the kind of visions we had in the 1950s, “with a Jetson’s-style future of pastel-coloured, aerodynamic vehicles flying about our heads” (Lefteri, 2014, p. 11).
If there is no page number provided (such as on a web site), then you’ll need to find another way to show where you got the quote from. Common solutions are to provide a paragraph number (count down from the beginning of the page if necessary), or a section title with a paragraph number within that section. For example:
The storyline is a vastly important process as it defines the main characters, plot, setting and overall theme (IGN, Phase 2: Pre-production, para. 5).
If a section heading is very long, it’s OK to abbreviate it to just a few words in speech marks e.g. “Wearable technology”.
There are some common situations you’ll come across that don’t fit neatly into the basic citation format.
There is no author
Maori design professionals work in many fields, including architecture, commercial design and engineering (Nga Aho, 2016).
There is no date
Practical craft training became a key aspect of Bauhaus teaching philosophy (Smith, n.d., p. 27).
I am using a chapter from an edited book
There is more than one author
According to Shaw and Eichbaum (2008) …..
……. (Shaw & Eichbaum, 2008).
According to Alred, Brusaw, and Oliu (2009) …
…….. (Alred, Brusaw, & Oliu, 2009).
According to Alred et al. (2009) …
…….. (Alred et al, 2009).
According to Watson et al. (2003) …..
……. (Watson et al., 2003).